java RSA加密解密实现

该工具类中用到了BASE64,需要借助第三方类库: javabase64-1.3.1.jar

注意:RSA加密明文最大长度117字节,解密要求密文最大长度为128字节,所以在加密和解密的过程中需要分块进行。

RSA加密对明文的长度是有限制的,如果加密数据过大会抛出如下异常:

Exception in thread "main" javax.crypto.IllegalBlockSizeException: Data must not be longer than 117 bytes
    at com.sun.crypto.provider.RSACipher.a(DashoA13*..)
    at com.sun.crypto.provider.RSACipher.engineDoFinal(DashoA13*..)
    at javax.crypto.Cipher.doFinal(DashoA13*..)

RSAUtils.java

package security;

import java.io.*;
//省略多个import

/** *//**
 * RSA公钥/私钥/签名工具包
 * 罗纳德·李维斯特(Ron [R]ivest)、阿迪·萨莫尔(Adi [S]hamir)和伦纳德·阿德曼(Leonard [A]dleman)
 * </p>
 * <p>
 * 字符串格式的密钥在未在特殊说明情况下都为BASE64编码格式<br/>
 * 由于非对称加密速度极其缓慢,一般文件不使用它来加密而是使用对称加密,<br/>
 * 非对称加密算法可以用来对对称加密的密钥加密,这样保证密钥的安全也就保证了数据的安全
 * </p>
 * 
 * @author IceWee
 * @date 2012-4-26
 * @version 1.0
 */
public class RSAUtils {

    /** *//**
     * 加密算法RSA
     */
    public static final String KEY_ALGORITHM = "RSA";
    
    /** *//**
     * 签名算法
     */
    public static final String SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM = "MD5withRSA";

    /** *//**
     * 获取公钥的key
     */
    private static final String PUBLIC_KEY = "RSAPublicKey";
    
    /** *//**
     * 获取私钥的key
     */
    private static final String PRIVATE_KEY = "RSAPrivateKey";
    
    /** *//**
     * RSA最大加密明文大小
     */
    private static final int MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK = 117;
    
    /** *//**
     * RSA最大解密密文大小
     */
    private static final int MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK = 128;

    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 生成密钥对(公钥和私钥)
     * </p>
     * 
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static Map<String, Object> genKeyPair() throws Exception {
        KeyPairGenerator keyPairGen = KeyPairGenerator.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
        keyPairGen.initialize(1024);
        KeyPair keyPair = keyPairGen.generateKeyPair();
        RSAPublicKey publicKey = (RSAPublicKey) keyPair.getPublic();
        RSAPrivateKey privateKey = (RSAPrivateKey) keyPair.getPrivate();
        Map<String, Object> keyMap = new HashMap<String, Object>(2);
        keyMap.put(PUBLIC_KEY, publicKey);
        keyMap.put(PRIVATE_KEY, privateKey);
        return keyMap;
    }
    
    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 用私钥对信息生成数字签名
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param data 已加密数据
     * @param privateKey 私钥(BASE64编码)
     * 
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static String sign(byte[] data, String privateKey) throws Exception {
        byte[] keyBytes = Base64Utils.decode(privateKey);
        PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
        PrivateKey privateK = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);
        Signature signature = Signature.getInstance(SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM);
        signature.initSign(privateK);
        signature.update(data);
        return Base64Utils.encode(signature.sign());
    }

    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 校验数字签名
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param data 已加密数据
     * @param publicKey 公钥(BASE64编码)
     * @param sign 数字签名
     * 
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     * 
     */
    public static boolean verify(byte[] data, String publicKey, String sign)
            throws Exception {
        byte[] keyBytes = Base64Utils.decode(publicKey);
        X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
        PublicKey publicK = keyFactory.generatePublic(keySpec);
        Signature signature = Signature.getInstance(SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM);
        signature.initVerify(publicK);
        signature.update(data);
        return signature.verify(Base64Utils.decode(sign));
    }

    /** *//**
     * <P>
     * 私钥解密
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param encryptedData 已加密数据
     * @param privateKey 私钥(BASE64编码)
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static byte[] decryptByPrivateKey(byte[] encryptedData, String privateKey)
            throws Exception {
        byte[] keyBytes = Base64Utils.decode(privateKey);
        PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
        Key privateK = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
        cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, privateK);
        int inputLen = encryptedData.length;
        ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        int offSet = 0;
        byte[] cache;
        int i = 0;
        // 对数据分段解密
        while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
            if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK) {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(encryptedData, offSet, MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK);
            } else {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(encryptedData, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
            }
            out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
            i++;
            offSet = i * MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK;
        }
        byte[] decryptedData = out.toByteArray();
        out.close();
        return decryptedData;
    }

    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 公钥解密
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param encryptedData 已加密数据
     * @param publicKey 公钥(BASE64编码)
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static byte[] decryptByPublicKey(byte[] encryptedData, String publicKey)
            throws Exception {
        byte[] keyBytes = Base64Utils.decode(publicKey);
        X509EncodedKeySpec x509KeySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
        Key publicK = keyFactory.generatePublic(x509KeySpec);
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
        cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, publicK);
        int inputLen = encryptedData.length;
        ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        int offSet = 0;
        byte[] cache;
        int i = 0;
        // 对数据分段解密
        while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
            if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK) {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(encryptedData, offSet, MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK);
            } else {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(encryptedData, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
            }
            out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
            i++;
            offSet = i * MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK;
        }
        byte[] decryptedData = out.toByteArray();
        out.close();
        return decryptedData;
    }

    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 公钥加密
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param data 源数据
     * @param publicKey 公钥(BASE64编码)
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static byte[] encryptByPublicKey(byte[] data, String publicKey)
            throws Exception {
        byte[] keyBytes = Base64Utils.decode(publicKey);
        X509EncodedKeySpec x509KeySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
        Key publicK = keyFactory.generatePublic(x509KeySpec);
        // 对数据加密
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
        cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, publicK);
        int inputLen = data.length;
        ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        int offSet = 0;
        byte[] cache;
        int i = 0;
        // 对数据分段加密
        while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
            if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK) {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK);
            } else {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
            }
            out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
            i++;
            offSet = i * MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK;
        }
        byte[] encryptedData = out.toByteArray();
        out.close();
        return encryptedData;
    }

    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 私钥加密
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param data 源数据
     * @param privateKey 私钥(BASE64编码)
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static byte[] encryptByPrivateKey(byte[] data, String privateKey)
            throws Exception {
        byte[] keyBytes = Base64Utils.decode(privateKey);
        PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
        Key privateK = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
        cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, privateK);
        int inputLen = data.length;
        ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        int offSet = 0;
        byte[] cache;
        int i = 0;
        // 对数据分段加密
        while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
            if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK) {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK);
            } else {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
            }
            out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
            i++;
            offSet = i * MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK;
        }
        byte[] encryptedData = out.toByteArray();
        out.close();
        return encryptedData;
    }

    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 获取私钥
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param keyMap 密钥对
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static String getPrivateKey(Map<String, Object> keyMap)
            throws Exception {
        Key key = (Key) keyMap.get(PRIVATE_KEY);
        return Base64Utils.encode(key.getEncoded());
    }

    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 获取公钥
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param keyMap 密钥对
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static String getPublicKey(Map<String, Object> keyMap)
            throws Exception {
        Key key = (Key) keyMap.get(PUBLIC_KEY);
        return Base64Utils.encode(key.getEncoded());
    }

}

Base64Utils.java

package security;

import java.io.*;
//省略多个import

/** *//**
 * <p>
 * BASE64编码解码工具包
 * </p>
 * <p>
 * 依赖javabase64-1.3.1.jar
 * </p>
 * 
 * @author IceWee
 * @date 2012-5-19
 * @version 1.0
 */
public class Base64Utils {

    /** *//**
     * 文件读取缓冲区大小
     */
    private static final int CACHE_SIZE = 1024;
    
    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * BASE64字符串解码为二进制数据
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param base64
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static byte[] decode(String base64) throws Exception {
        return Base64.decode(base64.getBytes());
    }
    
    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 二进制数据编码为BASE64字符串
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param bytes
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static String encode(byte[] bytes) throws Exception {
        return new String(Base64.encode(bytes));
    }
    
    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 将文件编码为BASE64字符串
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * 大文件慎用,可能会导致内存溢出
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param filePath 文件绝对路径
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static String encodeFile(String filePath) throws Exception {
        byte[] bytes = fileToByte(filePath);
        return encode(bytes);
    }
    
    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * BASE64字符串转回文件
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param filePath 文件绝对路径
     * @param base64 编码字符串
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static void decodeToFile(String filePath, String base64) throws Exception {
        byte[] bytes = decode(base64);
        byteArrayToFile(bytes, filePath);
    }
    
    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 文件转换为二进制数组
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param filePath 文件路径
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static byte[] fileToByte(String filePath) throws Exception {
        byte[] data = new byte[0];
        File file = new File(filePath);
        if (file.exists()) {
            FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(file);
            ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream(2048);
            byte[] cache = new byte[CACHE_SIZE];
            int nRead = 0;
            while ((nRead = in.read(cache)) != -1) {
                out.write(cache, 0, nRead);
                out.flush();
            }
            out.close();
            in.close();
            data = out.toByteArray();
         }
        return data;
    }
    
    /** *//**
     * <p>
     * 二进制数据写文件
     * </p>
     * 
     * @param bytes 二进制数据
     * @param filePath 文件生成目录
     */
    public static void byteArrayToFile(byte[] bytes, String filePath) throws Exception {
        InputStream in = new ByteArrayInputStream(bytes);   
        File destFile = new File(filePath);
        if (!destFile.getParentFile().exists()) {
            destFile.getParentFile().mkdirs();
        }
        destFile.createNewFile();
        OutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(destFile);
        byte[] cache = new byte[CACHE_SIZE];
        int nRead = 0;
        while ((nRead = in.read(cache)) != -1) {   
            out.write(cache, 0, nRead);
            out.flush();
        }
        out.close();
        in.close();
    }
    
    
}

RSATester.java

package security;

import java.util.Map;

public class RSATester {

    static String publicKey;
    static String privateKey;

    static {
        try {
            Map<String, Object> keyMap = RSAUtils.genKeyPair();
            publicKey = RSAUtils.getPublicKey(keyMap);
            privateKey = RSAUtils.getPrivateKey(keyMap);
            System.err.println("公钥: \n\r" + publicKey);
            System.err.println("私钥: \n\r" + privateKey);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
    
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        test();
        testSign();
    }

    static void test() throws Exception {
        System.err.println("公钥加密——私钥解密");
        String source = "这是一行没有任何意义的文字,你看完了等于没看,不是吗?";
        System.out.println("\r加密前文字:\r\n" + source);
        byte[] data = source.getBytes();
        byte[] encodedData = RSAUtils.encryptByPublicKey(data, publicKey);
        System.out.println("加密后文字:\r\n" + new String(encodedData));
        byte[] decodedData = RSAUtils.decryptByPrivateKey(encodedData, privateKey);
        String target = new String(decodedData);
        System.out.println("解密后文字: \r\n" + target);
    }

    static void testSign() throws Exception {
        System.err.println("私钥加密——公钥解密");
        String source = "这是一行测试RSA数字签名的无意义文字";
        System.out.println("原文字:\r\n" + source);
        byte[] data = source.getBytes();
        byte[] encodedData = RSAUtils.encryptByPrivateKey(data, privateKey);
        System.out.println("加密后:\r\n" + new String(encodedData));
        byte[] decodedData = RSAUtils.decryptByPublicKey(encodedData, publicKey);
        String target = new String(decodedData);
        System.out.println("解密后: \r\n" + target);
        System.err.println("私钥签名——公钥验证签名");
        String sign = RSAUtils.sign(encodedData, privateKey);
        System.err.println("签名:\r" + sign);
        boolean status = RSAUtils.verify(encodedData, publicKey, sign);
        System.err.println("验证结果:\r" + status);
    }
    
}

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